Ancient indian ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humors, which they linked with the five hindu elements. retail cost viagra [4] the four humors, their corresponding elements, seasons, sites of formation, and resulting temperaments alongside their modern equivalents are: [5] humour season element organ qualities ancient name modern mbti ancient characteristics blood spring air liver warm & moist sanguine artisan sp courageous, hopeful, amorous yellow bile summer fire spleen warm & dry choleric idealist nf easily angered, bad tempered black bile autumn earth gall bladder cold & dry melancholic guardian sj despondent, sleepless, irritable phlegm winter water brain/lungs cold & moist phlegmatic rational nt calm, unemotional [edit] history although modern medical science has thoroughly discredited humorism, the theory dominated western medical thinking for more than 2,000 years. order viagra online [6] [edit] origins the concept of four humors may have origins in ancient egypt [7] or mesopotamia, [8] though it was not systemized until ancient greek thinkers [9] around four hundred bc who directly linked it with the popular theory of the four elements earth, fire, water and air (empedocles). free viagra trial uk Fã¥hrã¦us (1921), a swedish physician who devised the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, suggested that the four humours were based upon the observation of blood clotting in a transparent container. When blood is drawn in a glass container and left undisturbed for about an hour, four different layers can be seen. A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a whitish layer of white blood cells (the "phlegm", now called the buffy coat). buy viagra online australia fast delivery The top layer is clear yellow serum (the "yellow bile"). [10] [edit] greek medicine the four temperaments (clockwise from top right: choleric; melancholic; sanguine; phlegmatic). free viagra trial uk See also: ancient greek medicine hippocrates is the one usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. viagra online canada Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of galen (131–201 ad) and was decisively displaced only in 1858 by rudolf virchow's newly published theories of cellular pathology. While galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. generic viagra india price Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile, while cold foods tended. viagra for women in kolkata buy cheap viagra online